TUMPENG GIZI

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Tumpeng kok Gizi? 

Gini nih ceritanya, pedoman Gizi Seimbang mengacu pada hasil kesepakatan konferensi pangan sedunia yang digelar tahun 1992 lalu. Dalam konferensi yang digelar di Roma ini, ada redefinisi pakem yang ada sebelumnya. Nutrition Guide for Balanced Diet menganjurkan makanan yang dikonsumsi mewakili Tumpeng Gizi Seimbang (TGS). Tentunya, setiap saran dalam Tumpeng Gizi Seimbang ini sudah disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan gizi setiap orang. Konsep 4 sehat 5 sempurna dulu berisi makanan pokok, lauk pauk, sayuran, buah-buahan, dan susu. Sejak tahun 1952 pemerintah kerap memperkenalkan konsep ini sebagai standar pemenuhan gizi manusia.

Parameter dalam Pedoman Gizi Seimbang 

Mengulik lebih jauh Pedoman Gizi Seimbang, ada empat pilar atau parameter utama yang perlu dipenuhi demi memastikan asupan gizi tetap optimal. Empat pilar dalam prinsip gizi seimbang tersebut adalah:

1. Konsumsi makanan beragam

Ada begitu banyak ragam makanan yang bisa dikonsumsi. Contoh yang paling familiar bagi masyarakat Indonesia ketika berbicara tentang makanan pokok tentu nasi putih. Namun menurut parameter yang baru ini, nasi putih bisa diganti dengan alternatif karbohidrat yang juga sehat seperti jagung, ubi, kentang, dan lainnya.Tak hanya itu, semakin beragamnya jenis makanan yang dikonsumsi justru baik bagi kesehatan. Peluang tubuh mendapatkan asupan nutrisi yang beragam kian besar. Contohnya protein dari ikan, serat dar, vitamin dan mineral dari sayur.

2. Hidup bersih

Membiasakan perilaku hidup bersih menjadi parameter berikutnya dalam Pedoman Gizi Seimbang. Tentu masalah sanitasi ini sejak lama menjadi fokus perhatian banyak pihak karena terkait erat dengan kemungkinan seseorang terkena penyakit.Membiasakan diri untuk mencuci tangan dengan air mengalir, menutup mulut dan hidung ketika bersin, menjaga agar makanan tidak terkena lalat, hingga menjaga kebersihan lingkungan sekitar termasuk poin dalam parameter ini.

3. Aktivitas fisik

Selanjutnya, Pedoman Gizi Seimbang menganjurkan setiap orang melakukan aktivitas fisik dengan olah raga yang sesuai dengan kondisi tubuh. Tentu setiap orang harus mengetahui jenis olahraga apa yang sesuai dengan tubuh mereka agar bisa berkomitmen melakukannya. Terbukti, berolahraga dapat mengendalikan berat badan, mengurangi risiko penyakit, menjaga kestabilan mood, hingga menjaga kesehatan tubuh secara keseluruhan. Berolahraga dan aktivitas fisik juga bisa menjaga tubuh agar tidak mudah terkena penyakit. Tentunya, tetap harus menyesuaikan dengan kemampuan diri agar tidak kelelahan.

4. Memantau berat badan

Berat badan ideal orang dewasa atau anak-anak bisa diukur dengan mempertimbangkan banyak faktor. Memantau berat badan secara rutin agar sesuai dengan indeks masa tubuh dapat memberi sinyal apakah tubuh berada di indeks ideal atau tidak.

Anjuran makan menurut Pedoman Gizi Seimbang

Dulu konsep 4 sehat 5 sempurna ditampilkan dalam 5 kuadran yang berbeda. Namun sekarang, Pedoman Gizi Seimbang berbentuk Tumpeng Gizi Seimbang. Isi dari tumpeng ini bukan hanya makanan atau minuman saja, tapi juga meliputi aktivitas keempat parameter di atas.Kita mulai membedah Tumpeng Gizi Seimbang dari puncak hingga bawah, dengan detil sebagai berikut: 

1. Membatasi konsumsi gula, garam, dan minyak

Menurut ahli, dalam puncak Tumpeng Gizi Seimbang, batas konsumsi gula adalah 4 sendok makan (50 gram), garam 1 sendok teh (5 gram), dan lemak 5 sendok makan (67 gram).Asupan glukosa berlebihan dapat menurunkan sensitivitas insulin. Kelebihan garam berisiko meningkatkan tekanan darah. Sementara kelebihan lemak dalam mengakibatkan peningkatan berat badan hingga obesitas.

2. Mengonsumsi sumber protein

Bagian bawah dari puncak Tumpeng Gizi Seimbang berisi sumber protein. Jenisnya beragam mulai dari protein hewani (ikan, ayam, daging, telur) dan juga protein nabati (kedelai, tahu).Lauk pauk yang disarankan adalah yang mengandung protein tinggi dan rendah lemak. Pada bagian tumpeng ini pula, disarankan untuk minum air putih sebanyak 8 gelas per hari.

3. Makan sayuran

Satu (1) porsi sayuran adalah kurang lebih 1 (satu) gelas belimbing setelah dimasak dan ditiriskan. Idealnya menurut Pedoman Gizi Seimbang, makan sayuran setiap harinya berkisar antara 3-4 porsi. Contohnya seperti, 1 (satu) porsi salad sayuran untuk sarapan, 1 (satu) porsi sop kentang dan wortel untuk makan siang dan 1 (satu) porsi tumis kangkung untuk makan malam.

4. Makan buah-buahan

Sementara untuk buah-buahan, porsi yang ideal sesuai dengan Pedoman Gizi Seimbang adalah 2-3 porsi. Kandungan zat gizi perporsi buah (setara dengan 1 buah pisang ambon ukuran sedang) atau 50 gram, mengandung 50 kalori dan 10 gram karbohidrat. Untuk dapat memenuhi 2-3 porsi, Anda dapat mengonsumsi satu (1) buah pisang ambon, satu (1) buah alpukat sedang dan satu (1) buah kecil apel malang.

5. Konsumsi karbohidrat

Di bagian terbawah dari Tumpeng Gizi Seimbang, diterangkan mengenai karbohidrat. Idealnya kebutuhan gizi manusia setiap harinya adalah 3-4 porsi karbohidrat.    Jenisnya bisa beragam mulai dari nasi, jagung, ubi, kentang, dan karbohidrat lainnya.

6. Gaya hidup

Pada bagian bawah tumpeng, ada parameter lain yang menyertai dan berkaitan erat dengan gaya hidup. Bukan tentang makanan dan minuman, tapi mewakili parameter yang telah dielaborasi di atas. Contohnya adalah rutin berolahraga fisik, memantau berat badan, serta yang tak kalah penting adalah menjaga kebersihan.

Tentunya perumusan Pedoman Gizi Seimbang ini telah diperhitungkan dengan sangat matang. You are what you eat. Semakin beragam dan bernutrisi makanan yang kamu konsumsi, akan semakin baik pula dampaknya bagi kesehatan tubuh. Tentunya, menjalani prinsip gizi seimbang untuk hidup sehat tak hanya untuk kamu sendiri. Nantinya, bukan tidak mungkin kualitas sumber daya manusia di Indonesia bisa semakin unggul dan andal. 

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