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Stunting? Apa ya?

Stunting adalah masalah kurang gizi kronis akibat kurangnya asupan gizi dalam waktu yang cukup lama sehingga mengakibatkan gangguan pertumbuhan pada anak. Seorang anak dianggap mengalami stunting jika tinggi badan mereka lebih rendah atau pendek (kerdil) dari standar usianya (berdasarkan WHO-MGRS).

Apa penyebab stunting pada anak?

Penyebab utama stunting adalah kekurangan gizi kronis sejak bayi dalam kandungan hingga periode awal kehidupan anak (1000 hari setelah lahir). Beberapa faktor yang mengakibatkan kekurangan gizi kronis, antara lain:

🍗Faktor gizi buruk yang dialami ibu hamil dan anak balita

🍗Kurangnya pengetahuan ibu mengenai gizi sebelum hamil, saat hamil, dan setelah melahirkan

🍗Terbatasnya akses pelayanan kesehatan, termasuk layanan kehamilan dan postnatal (setelah melahirkan)

🍗Kurangnya akses air bersih dan sanitasi

🍗Kurangnya akses makanan bergizi karena ketidakmampuan biaya

Apa saja gejala dan dampak stunting?

Berikut adalah beberapa gejala stunting yang bisa diidentifikasi:

👶Tubuh pendek di bawah rata-rata karena pertumbuhan melambat

👶Pertumbuhan gigi terlambat

👶Buruknya kemampuan fokus dan mengingat pelajaran

👶Pubertas yang terlambat

👶Anak menjadi lebih pendiam dan tidak banyak melakukan kontak mata dengan orang di sekitarnya (biasanya pada anak usia 8-10 tahun).

Stunting dapat memberikan dampak buruk pada anak, baik dalam bentuk  jangka pendek maupun jangka panjang. Dampak jangka pendek stunting adalah terganggunya perkembangan otak, kecerdasan, gangguan pada pertumbuhan fisiknya, serta gangguan metabolisme.Sedangkan, dampak jangka panjang stunting yang tidak segera ditangani adalah penurunan kemampuan kognitif otak, kekebalan tubuh melemah sehingga mudah sakit, dan memiliki risiko tinggi terkena penyakit metabolik, seperti kegemukan, penyakit jantung, dan penyakit pembuluh darah.

Cara mendeteksi stunting pada anak

Stunting dapat dideteksi melalui pusat pelayanan kesehatan, seperti puskesmas atau rumah sakit, dengan menggunakan pengukuran standar baku WHO-MGRS (Multicenter Growth References Study), Z-score, dan Denver-milestones. Bagaimana cara mencegah stunting pada anak?

Stunting pada anak dapat dicegah melalui beberapa cara penting, seperti:

1. Pola makan

Istilah ‘Isi Piringku’ dengan gizi seimbang perlu diperkenalkan dan dibiasakan dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Dalam satu porsi makan, setengah piring diisi oleh sayur dan buah, sementara setengahnya lagi diiisi dengan sumber protein (nabati atau hewani) dengan porsi yang lebih banyak dibandingkan karbohidrat.

2. Pola asuh

Stunting juga dipengaruhi aspek perilaku, terutama pada pola asuh yang kurang baik dalam memberi makan bayi dan balita. Untuk mencegah stunting, pola asuh yang baik dapat diterapkan mulai dari edukasi tentang kesehatan reproduksi dan gizi bagi remaja, hingga para calon ibu untuk memahami pentingnya memenuhi kebutuhan gizi saat hamil.Langkah pencegahan lain yang bisa diambil, yaitu memeriksakan kandungan secara rutin saat hamil, menjalani persalinan di fasilitas kesehatan, melakukan inisiasi menyusui dini (IMD), dan mengupayakan pemberian air susu ibu (ASI), terutama pada beberapa hari setelah kelahiran bayi saat ASI mengandung banyak kolostrum. Berikan ASI secara eksklusif hingga bayi berusia 6 bulan, diikuti dengan pemberian makanan pendamping ASI (MPASI). Pantau terus tumbuh kembang bayi pada pusat pelayanan kesehatan.

3. Sanitasi dan akses air bersih

Rendahnya akses terhadap pelayanan kesehatan, akses sanitasi, dan air bersih, memiliki peran dalam pembentukan stunting. Selain itu, kebiasaan cuci tangan dengan sabun dan air mengalir perlu diterapkan untuk menjaga tubuh dari berbagai faktor penyebab stunting.

Cegah Stunting, Itu Penting!!!

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